Knowledge Base

Knowledge Base

UPS

UPS provides electricity to the connected electronic equipments when the main power is out. UPS also work to stabilize voltage and/or filter out spikes, sags, surge or noise so that they won’t harm our equipments. UPS is equipped by Sealed Lead Acid (SLA) Batteries with lifetime of 2-3 years. The backup time depends on the battery and number of load. Other than SLA Battery, it also has a battery charger to automatically fill up the batteries when it runs out of charge.

There are two UPS system:

  1. On-line/Dual Conversion System. The most reliable UPS system where it can backup electricity, stabilize voltage and also filters out the main power. The transfer time from main power to backup battery is 0 sec. This type of UPS mainly used for sensitive equipments such as ATM machines, Computer Servers (for data center).
  2. Off-line / Line interactive System. This type of UPS uses switch where the switch works to give electricity right when the power is out (with transfer time of 0.004 second). This is the most common UPS that people see in the industry.
  3. UPS can also be classified as:
    1. Step-square/Modified Sine-wave UPS, generates square wave voltage.
    2. Sine-wave UPS, generates sine wave voltage.

Voltage Stabilizer

Voltage stabilizer is also called AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) work to stabilize voltage. Unlike UPS, AVR doesn’t use battery; so it can not backup electricity.

There are several types of AVR:

  1. Servo motor. It uses servo motor to stabilize voltage. Since the motor need to spin to stabilize the voltage, there is a delay of 2 to 5 second to reach a stable voltage. It also doesn’t have a filter to cancel out spikes, surges, sags or noises.
  2. Relay switch. Faster response compared to servo motor, but it is not as stable as other type of stabilizer (+/- 5% range of stability)
  3. Digital controlled. Combining relay and triac to stabilize electricity. It also has line filter.
  4. Ferro-Resonant/ line conditioner. The most reliable system that give a fast response time, good stability, filter line using isolation transformer & capacitor. The disadvantages of this type of Stabilizer is its weight and noise from fan (to reduce internal heat).

Inverter

Inverter is a product that can convert DC power (from battery) to AC power

There are two types of Inverter:

  1. Produce square wave output. Also known as PASCAL PP and PASCAL PC series. Most of this kind of inverters have inputs of 12 Volts, 24 Volts (2 x 12 Volts)
  2. Produce sine wave output. Also known as PASCAL PS series. This kind of inverters have several input types such as 12 Volts, 24 Volts and 48 Volts (4 x 12 Volts). Have two variant of PS inverter, they are: R and EVR model. The advantage of EVR model is that the inverter have the ability to use bypass input from mains (PLN) when the batteries are completely exhausted (or if there is problem with batteries).

The uses for inverter can vary from simple charging for cellular phones / laptops (using simple PP or PC series) to more complicated uses in telecommunication devices (which in most case use PS series)